Oncology is that branch of medicine that studies methods of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of tumors.
Tumor – The excess pathological growth of tissues, consisting of qualitatively changed cells that have lost their differentiation. By nature and growth rates, tumors are divided into benign and malignant.
Benign tumors, such as lipoma, fibroma, myoma, osteoma, grow slowly, can last for years without increasing. Removal of a benign tumor with its membrane leads to complete cure of the patient.
Malignant tumors grow much faster. Up to 90% of all malignant tumors are cancers. Therefore, all malignant diseases are called cancerous, and measures to combat malignant tumors – anti-cancer measures.
In oncology, early diagnosis is essential – the faster the tumor is detected, and the treatment is started by cancer specialist in Delhi, the better the results.
The surgical method of treatment of tumors and to this day is the leading one.
The choice of this or that method of treatment of tumors, including surgical, depends on many conditions. Therefore, it is essential to determine the spectrum of indications for the intervention, to determine its place and relationship with alternative methods of treatment. Radical removal of a solid tumor (a tumor that develops from the same tissue at a given site) is the most important condition for the success of treatment and the prognosis of the disease.
Recently, surgical methods of treating tumors underwent serious changes. This concerns, first of all, the development of methods that minimize the risk of “seeding” tissues with tumor cells, especially with incomplete excision of the tumor. This principle of “elasticity” should be almost 100% to create conditions for further treatment by other methods.
Another direction is the development of radical, but low-traumatic surgeries using modern surgical techniques. For example, laparoscopic operations allow, with minimal traumatism, to perform the most effective revision and excision of the zones of a possible tumor process.
Biopsy of tumor tissues is a surgical manipulation, which allows obtaining a sufficient volume of tissue for individual studies. Allocate open and closed biopsies.
A closed biopsy is performed with a thin needle. This type of biopsy is used only in the study of particular types of tumors. It has some significant drawbacks. For example, a small amount of material, which can give a significant error in the reliability of the results of the study.
Also, with a small amount of equipment, it is not possible to conduct several types of research at once, which is sometimes necessary to clarify the treatment plan. The advantage of a closed biopsy in the minimal trauma of the study.
Trepan biopsy. It is carried out by a special needle. However, after it is performed, the risk of complications such as bleeding, pneumothorax (lung sagging), perforation of the organ increases. With adequate manipulation, the surgeon can obtain a sufficient amount of material for a complete diagnosis.
An open biopsy is of two types – excision (total) and incisional (partial). With a small tumor size and convenient location, a full biopsy is used, i.e., removal of the entire tumor for examination. If the tumor does not have clear boundaries or requires extensive, very traumatic surgery for complete excision, sometimes (especially in pediatric oncology) resort to partial biopsy.
Endoscopic biopsy in recent years is becoming increasingly popular due to minimal trauma, maximum informative value and the possibility of examining not only the abdominal organs but also the thoracic cavity.
The new surgical techniques include embolization of the vessels of the tumor, intra-arterial infusion, isolated perfusion of the vessels with drugs, cryotherapy (cold treatment), hyperthermia, laser therapy. Their effectiveness and scope are gradually growing and developing. Venakteshwar Hospital is the best oncology hospital in Delhi offers access to the latest treatment and successful surgical treatment and oncology